Nothing resonates more powerfully than a “good versus evil” story, which is precisely how the global media have portrayed the Russo-Chechen conflict. This is dangerous reductionism that neglects crucial historical facts, which must be acknowledged if we hope to end the devastating conflict. Its spillover potential has dangerous implications for global security and demands transcendence of a Manichean simplification.
In the post-communist ideological vacuum twenty years ago, Chechens saw an opportunity to attain independence after a legacy of brutal Russian domination. What began as a separatist movement became, with the import of radical Islam as a mobilizing factor, part of the global “war on terror.” This continues to allow Russia to present its atrocities in Chechnya as a legitimate response to the plague of Islamic fundamentalism.
For Chechens, Islam injects a degree of global community and financial support in their quest for independence. Radical Islam places the separatist cause under the aegis of virulent Arab jihadists alien to the Chechen historical experience.
For Russia and its supporters, Islam symbolizes Chechnya’s identification with the “evil” camp in the global war on terror. Particularly in the wake of 9/11, this has led the United States and the international community to accept appalling Russian policies in Chechnya, seeing Russia as an ally in the war on terror.
The 2004 Beslan school crisis, which killed at least 334 people, solidified Moscow’s demonizing narrative of Chechnya as “evil” and Russia as “defensiveness victim.” Chechen “wolves” have mutated into “Islamic terrorists” and, as evidenced by Beslan, are “barely human.”
This reporting neglects the complexities and historical trauma inherent in the conflict’s origins and only compounds Chechen radicalism. The world has largely forgotten such tragedies as the 1944 Stalinist deportations, which killed between one-half and one-quarter of the Chechen population, but its lingering traumatic effects strongly inform Chechen collective memory and amplify its commitment to independence at any cost.
The first Chechen war in 1994-1996 claimed as many as 100,000 Chechen lives, primarily civilians. The second war, from 1999-2000, was also marked by massive civilian casualties and human rights violations. Pro-Moscow President Kadyrov has been commended for reducing overt violence in Chechnya, but its population is fiercely divided, living conditions are horrendous, bursts of violence continue, and corruption is spiraling out of control.
In a globalized world, we can no longer afford to reduce distant “ancient ethnic hatreds” to a irresolvable “clash of civilizations” narrative and we must not let the North Caucasus fall off our radar. It is high time to abandon the lassitude of “good versus evil” interpretations of the world. By acknowledging historical Russian atrocities in Chechnya, the global community could appeal to moderate Chechens disgusted by terrorist tactics, abandon demonization narratives, and direct the conflict toward a less destructive future.